Target Disease: Retinal Diseases

The retina is a neuronal tissue located at the back of the eye. Its primary function is the perception of light, the processing of light induced stimuli, and the transmission of light-dependent information to the brain.

Retinal diseases like wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and geographic atrophy (GA) can lead to permanent vision loss. VEGF is a protein produced by cells which stimulates the formation of new abnormal blood vessels, a process called neovascularization, and induces vascular permeability, leading to leakage and swelling of the retina. Swelling of the retina leads to vision decline and death of the retinal cells, which can irreversibly cause blindness if not adequately treated.

In addition, a large number of hereditary diseases affect the retina and can result in severe vision impairment or blindness.

Diabetic Retinopathy

About Diabetic
Retinopathy (DR)
DR is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and remains one of the leading cause of preventable vision loss in the young and middle-aged working population. Sight-threatening damage to the retina resulting from DR, as a progressive disease, occurs at varying rates in individuals with diabetes. The below graphic illustrates the primary effects of DR compared to a healthy eye.

DR is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and remains one of the leading cause of preventable vision loss in the young and middle-aged working population. Sight-threatening damage to the retina resulting from DR, as a progressive disease, occurs at varying rates in individuals with diabetes. The below graphic illustrates the primary effects of DR compared to a healthy eye.
DR is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and remains one of the leading cause of preventable vision loss in the young and middle-aged working population. Sight-threatening damage to the retina resulting from DR, as a progressive disease, occurs at varying rates in individuals with diabetes. The below graphic illustrates the primary effects of DR compared to a healthy eye.
PREVALENCE OF DR
Diabetic Retinopathy
10M
DIABETIC PATIENTS IN the US
suffer from This vision-
threatening disease
An estimated 463 million people have diabetes mellitus, or DM, worldwide, of which, approximately one-third have signs of DR. Approximately 30 million people in the United States have diabetes, 10 million of whom suffer from DR, including 1.5 million with diabetic macular edema (DME).


With diabetes on the rise, diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of acquired vision loss in the young and middle-aged population in the United States, accounting for about 80% of cases of legal blindness in persons aged 20 to 74 years.

The Unmet Need of DR Patients

Early diagnosis is a big unmet need for asymptomatic patients with DR. Patients with DR typically have no symptoms in the early stage of the disease and may not seek medical evaluation until the disease progresses to cause irreversible vision impairment.

Multiple trials have shown that anti-VEGFs are beneficial for the treatment of DR without DME; however, the need for frequent injections and follow-up in this often-asymptomatic population leads to inadequate compliance and subsequent vision loss.

Although the direct medical costs of DR are substantial, the indirect costs of visual impairment with respect to loss of productivity, increased nursing home admissions, and decreased quality of life are far more significant.
With diabetes on the rise, diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of acquired vision loss in the young and middle-aged population in the United States, accounting for about 80% of cases of legal blindness in persons aged 20 to 74 years.
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